# What is thermodynamics?

"Thermodynamics is the study of the relations between heat, work, temperature, and energy. The laws of thermodynamics describe how the energy in a system changes and whether the system can perform useful work on its surroundings. The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work" (Britannica).

# The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

When two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, the first two systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This property makes it meaningful to use thermometers as the “third system” and to define a temperature scale.

• The zeroth law of thermodynamics. When two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, the first two systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This property makes it meaningful to use thermometers as the “third system” and to define a temperature scale.

• The first law of thermodynamics, or the law of conservation of energy. The change in a system’s internal energy is equal to the difference between heat added to the system from its surroundings and work done by the system on its surroundings.

• The second law of thermodynamics. Heat does not flow spontaneously from a colder region to a hotter region, or, equivalently, heat at a given temperature cannot be converted entirely into work. Consequently, the entropy of a closed system, or heat energy per unit temperature, increases over time toward some maximum value. Thus, all closed systems tend toward an equilibrium state in which entropy is at a maximum and no energy is available to do useful work.

• The third law of thermodynamics. The entropy of a perfect crystal of an element in its most stable form tends to zero as the temperature approaches absolute zero. This allows an absolute scale for entropy to be established that, from a statistical point of view, determines the degree of randomness or disorder in a system.